Mojo :: DOM (source)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

NAME

Mojo::DOM - Minimalistic HTML/XML DOM parser with CSS selectors

SYNOPSIS

use Mojo::DOM;

# Parse
my $dom = Mojo::DOM->new('<div><p id="a">Test</p><p id="b">123</p></div>');

# Find
say $dom->at('#b')->text;
say $dom->find('p')->map('text')->join("\n");
say $dom->find('[id]')->map(attr => 'id')->join("\n");

# Iterate
$dom->find('p[id]')->reverse->each(sub { say $_->{id} });

# Loop
for my $e ($dom->find('p[id]')->each) {
  say $e->{id}, ':', $e->text;
}

# Modify
$dom->find('div p')->last->append('<p id="c">456</p>');
$dom->find(':not(p)')->map('strip');

# Render
say "$dom";

DESCRIPTION

Mojo::DOM is a minimalistic and relaxed HTML/XML DOM parser with CSS selector support. It will even try to interpret broken HTML and XML, so you should not use it for validation.

NODES AND ELEMENTS

When we parse an HTML/XML fragment, it gets turned into a tree of nodes.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head><title>Hello</title></head>
  <body>World!</body>
</html>

There are currently eight different kinds of nodes, cdata, comment, doctype, pi, raw, root, tag and text. Elements are nodes of the type tag.

root
|- doctype (html)
+- tag (html)
   |- tag (head)
   |  +- tag (title)
   |     +- raw (Hello)
   +- tag (body)
      +- text (World!)

While all node types are represented as Mojo::DOM objects, some methods like "attr" and "namespace" only apply to elements.

CASE-SENSITIVITY

Mojo::DOM defaults to HTML semantics, that means all tags and attribute names are lowercased and selectors need to be lowercase as well.

# HTML semantics
my $dom = Mojo::DOM->new('<P ID="greeting">Hi!</P>');
say $dom->at('p[id]')->text;

If an XML declaration is found, the parser will automatically switch into XML mode and everything becomes case-sensitive.

# XML semantics
my $dom = Mojo::DOM->new('<?xml version="1.0"?><P ID="greeting">Hi!</P>');
say $dom->at('P[ID]')->text;

XML detection can also be disabled with the "xml" method.

# Force XML semantics
my $dom = Mojo::DOM->new->xml(1)->parse('<P ID="greeting">Hi!</P>');
say $dom->at('P[ID]')->text;

# Force HTML semantics
my $dom = Mojo::DOM->new->xml(0)->parse('<P ID="greeting">Hi!</P>');
say $dom->at('p[id]')->text;

METHODS

Mojo::DOM implements the following methods.

all_text

my $trimmed   = $dom->all_text;
my $untrimmed = $dom->all_text(0);

Extract text content from all descendant nodes of this element, smart whitespace trimming is enabled by default.

# "foo bar baz"
$dom->parse("<div>foo\n<p>bar</p>baz\n</div>")->at('div')->all_text;

# "foo\nbarbaz\n"
$dom->parse("<div>foo\n<p>bar</p>baz\n</div>")->at('div')->all_text(0);

ancestors

my $collection = $dom->ancestors;
my $collection = $dom->ancestors('div ~ p');

Find all ancestor elements of this node matching the CSS selector and return a Mojo::Collection object containing these elements as Mojo::DOM objects. All selectors from "SELECTORS" in Mojo::DOM::CSS are supported.

# List tag names of ancestor elements
say $dom->ancestors->map('tag')->join("\n");

append

$dom = $dom->append('<p>I ♥ Mojolicious!</p>');

Append HTML/XML fragment to this node (for all node types other than root).

# "<div><h1>Test</h1><h2>123</h2></div>"
$dom->parse('<div><h1>Test</h1></div>')
  ->at('h1')->append('<h2>123</h2>')->root;

# "<p>Test 123</p>"
$dom->parse('<p>Test</p>')->at('p')
  ->child_nodes->first->append(' 123')->root;

append_content

$dom = $dom->append_content('<p>I ♥ Mojolicious!</p>');

Append HTML/XML fragment (for root and tag nodes) or raw content to this node's content.

# "<div><h1>Test123</h1></div>"
$dom->parse('<div><h1>Test</h1></div>')
  ->at('h1')->append_content('123')->root;

# "<!-- Test 123 --><br>"
$dom->parse('<!-- Test --><br>')
  ->child_nodes->first->append_content('123 ')->root;

# "<p>Test<i>123</i></p>"
$dom->parse('<p>Test</p>')->at('p')->append_content('<i>123</i>')->root;

at

my $result = $dom->at('div ~ p');

Find first descendant element of this element matching the CSS selector and return it as a Mojo::DOM object, or undef if none could be found. All selectors from "SELECTORS" in Mojo::DOM::CSS are supported.

# Find first element with "svg" namespace definition
my $namespace = $dom->at('[xmlns\:svg]')->{'xmlns:svg'};

attr

my $hash = $dom->attr;
my $foo  = $dom->attr('foo');
$dom     = $dom->attr({foo => 'bar'});
$dom     = $dom->attr(foo => 'bar');

This element's attributes.

# Remove an attribute
delete $dom->attr->{id};

# Attribute without value
$dom->attr(selected => undef);

# List id attributes
say $dom->find('*')->map(attr => 'id')->compact->join("\n");

child_nodes

my $collection = $dom->child_nodes;

Return a Mojo::Collection object containing all child nodes of this element as Mojo::DOM objects.

# "<p><b>123</b></p>"
$dom->parse('<p>Test<b>123</b></p>')->at('p')->child_nodes->first->remove;

# "<!DOCTYPE html>"
$dom->parse('<!DOCTYPE html><b>123</b>')->child_nodes->first;

# " Test "
$dom->parse('<b>123</b><!-- Test -->')->child_nodes->last->content;

children

my $collection = $dom->children;
my $collection = $dom->children('div ~ p');

Find all child elements of this element matching the CSS selector and return a Mojo::Collection object containing these elements as Mojo::DOM objects. All selectors from "SELECTORS" in Mojo::DOM::CSS are supported.

# Show tag name of random child element
say $dom->children->shuffle->first->tag;

content

my $str = $dom->content;
$dom    = $dom->content('<p>I ♥ Mojolicious!</p>');

Return this node's content or replace it with HTML/XML fragment (for root and tag nodes) or raw content.

# "<b>Test</b>"
$dom->parse('<div><b>Test</b></div>')->at('div')->content;

# "<div><h1>123</h1></div>"
$dom->parse('<div><h1>Test</h1></div>')->at('h1')->content('123')->root;

# "<p><i>123</i></p>"
$dom->parse('<p>Test</p>')->at('p')->content('<i>123</i>')->root;

# "<div><h1></h1></div>"
$dom->parse('<div><h1>Test</h1></div>')->at('h1')->content('')->root;

# " Test "
$dom->parse('<!-- Test --><br>')->child_nodes->first->content;

# "<div><!-- 123 -->456</div>"
$dom->parse('<div><!-- Test -->456</div>')
  ->at('div')->child_nodes->first->content(' 123 ')->root;

descendant_nodes

my $collection = $dom->descendant_nodes;

Return a Mojo::Collection object containing all descendant nodes of this element as Mojo::DOM objects.

# "<p><b>123</b></p>"
$dom->parse('<p><!-- Test --><b>123<!-- 456 --></b></p>')
  ->descendant_nodes->grep(sub { $_->type eq 'comment' })
  ->map('remove')->first;

# "<p><b>test</b>test</p>"
$dom->parse('<p><b>123</b>456</p>')
  ->at('p')->descendant_nodes->grep(sub { $_->type eq 'text' })
  ->map(content => 'test')->first->root;

find

my $collection = $dom->find('div ~ p');

Find all descendant elements of this element matching the CSS selector and return a Mojo::Collection object containing these elements as Mojo::DOM objects. All selectors from "SELECTORS" in Mojo::DOM::CSS are supported.

# Find a specific element and extract information
my $id = $dom->find('div')->[23]{id};

# Extract information from multiple elements
my @headers = $dom->find('h1, h2, h3')->map('text')->each;

# Count all the different tags
my $hash = $dom->find('*')->reduce(sub { $a->{$b->tag}++; $a }, {});

# Find elements with a class that contains dots
my @divs = $dom->find('div.foo\.bar')->each;

following

my $collection = $dom->following;
my $collection = $dom->following('div ~ p');

Find all sibling elements after this node matching the CSS selector and return a Mojo::Collection object containing these elements as Mojo::DOM objects. All selectors from "SELECTORS" in Mojo::DOM::CSS are supported.

# List tags of sibling elements after this node
say $dom->following->map('tag')->join("\n");

following_nodes

my $collection = $dom->following_nodes;

Return a Mojo::Collection object containing all sibling nodes after this node as Mojo::DOM objects.

# "C"
$dom->parse('<p>A</p><!-- B -->C')->at('p')->following_nodes->last->content;

matches

my $bool = $dom->matches('div ~ p');

Check if this element matches the CSS selector. All selectors from "SELECTORS" in Mojo::DOM::CSS are supported.

# True
$dom->parse('<p class="a">A</p>')->at('p')->matches('.a');
$dom->parse('<p class="a">A</p>')->at('p')->matches('p[class]');

# False
$dom->parse('<p class="a">A</p>')->at('p')->matches('.b');
$dom->parse('<p class="a">A</p>')->at('p')->matches('p[id]');

namespace

my $namespace = $dom->namespace;

Find this element's namespace, or return undef if none could be found.

# Find namespace for an element with namespace prefix
my $namespace = $dom->at('svg > svg\:circle')->namespace;

# Find namespace for an element that may or may not have a namespace prefix
my $namespace = $dom->at('svg > circle')->namespace;

new

my $dom = Mojo::DOM->new;
my $dom = Mojo::DOM->new('<foo bar="baz">I ♥ Mojolicious!</foo>');

Construct a new scalar-based Mojo::DOM object and "parse" HTML/XML fragment if necessary.

next

my $sibling = $dom->next;

Return Mojo::DOM object for next sibling element, or undef if there are no more siblings.

# "<h2>123</h2>"
$dom->parse('<div><h1>Test</h1><h2>123</h2></div>')->at('h1')->next;

next_node

my $sibling = $dom->next_node;

Return Mojo::DOM object for next sibling node, or undef if there are no more siblings.

# "456"
$dom->parse('<p><b>123</b><!-- Test -->456</p>')
  ->at('b')->next_node->next_node;

# " Test "
$dom->parse('<p><b>123</b><!-- Test -->456</p>')
  ->at('b')->next_node->content;

parent

my $parent = $dom->parent;

Return Mojo::DOM object for parent of this node, or undef if this node has no parent.

# "<b><i>Test</i></b>"
$dom->parse('<p><b><i>Test</i></b></p>')->at('i')->parent;

parse

$dom = $dom->parse('<foo bar="baz">I ♥ Mojolicious!</foo>');

Parse HTML/XML fragment with Mojo::DOM::HTML.

# Parse XML
my $dom = Mojo::DOM->new->xml(1)->parse('<foo>I ♥ Mojolicious!</foo>');

preceding

my $collection = $dom->preceding;
my $collection = $dom->preceding('div ~ p');

Find all sibling elements before this node matching the CSS selector and return a Mojo::Collection object containing these elements as Mojo::DOM objects. All selectors from "SELECTORS" in Mojo::DOM::CSS are supported.

# List tags of sibling elements before this node
say $dom->preceding->map('tag')->join("\n");

preceding_nodes

my $collection = $dom->preceding_nodes;

Return a Mojo::Collection object containing all sibling nodes before this node as Mojo::DOM objects.

# "A"
$dom->parse('A<!-- B --><p>C</p>')->at('p')->preceding_nodes->first->content;

prepend

$dom = $dom->prepend('<p>I ♥ Mojolicious!</p>');

Prepend HTML/XML fragment to this node (for all node types other than root).

# "<div><h1>Test</h1><h2>123</h2></div>"
$dom->parse('<div><h2>123</h2></div>')
  ->at('h2')->prepend('<h1>Test</h1>')->root;

# "<p>Test 123</p>"
$dom->parse('<p>123</p>')
  ->at('p')->child_nodes->first->prepend('Test ')->root;

prepend_content

$dom = $dom->prepend_content('<p>I ♥ Mojolicious!</p>');

Prepend HTML/XML fragment (for root and tag nodes) or raw content to this node's content.

# "<div><h2>Test123</h2></div>"
$dom->parse('<div><h2>123</h2></div>')
  ->at('h2')->prepend_content('Test')->root;

# "<!-- Test 123 --><br>"
$dom->parse('<!-- 123 --><br>')
  ->child_nodes->first->prepend_content(' Test')->root;

# "<p><i>123</i>Test</p>"
$dom->parse('<p>Test</p>')->at('p')->prepend_content('<i>123</i>')->root;

previous

my $sibling = $dom->previous;

Return Mojo::DOM object for previous sibling element, or undef if there are no more siblings.

# "<h1>Test</h1>"
$dom->parse('<div><h1>Test</h1><h2>123</h2></div>')->at('h2')->previous;

previous_node

my $sibling = $dom->previous_node;

Return Mojo::DOM object for previous sibling node, or undef if there are no more siblings.

# "123"
$dom->parse('<p>123<!-- Test --><b>456</b></p>')
  ->at('b')->previous_node->previous_node;

# " Test "
$dom->parse('<p>123<!-- Test --><b>456</b></p>')
  ->at('b')->previous_node->content;

remove

my $parent = $dom->remove;

Remove this node and return "root" (for root nodes) or "parent".

# "<div></div>"
$dom->parse('<div><h1>Test</h1></div>')->at('h1')->remove;

# "<p><b>456</b></p>"
$dom->parse('<p>123<b>456</b></p>')
  ->at('p')->child_nodes->first->remove->root;

replace

my $parent = $dom->replace('<div>I ♥ Mojolicious!</div>');

Replace this node with HTML/XML fragment and return "root" (for root nodes) or "parent".

# "<div><h2>123</h2></div>"
$dom->parse('<div><h1>Test</h1></div>')->at('h1')->replace('<h2>123</h2>');

# "<p><b>123</b></p>"
$dom->parse('<p>Test</p>')
  ->at('p')->child_nodes->[0]->replace('<b>123</b>')->root;

root

my $root = $dom->root;

Return Mojo::DOM object for root node.

strip

my $parent = $dom->strip;

Remove this element while preserving its content and return "parent".

# "<div>Test</div>"
$dom->parse('<div><h1>Test</h1></div>')->at('h1')->strip;

tag

my $tag = $dom->tag;
$dom    = $dom->tag('div');

This element's tag name.

# List tag names of child elements
say $dom->children->map('tag')->join("\n");

tap

$dom = $dom->tap(sub {...});

Alias for "tap" in Mojo::Base.

text

my $trimmed   = $dom->text;
my $untrimmed = $dom->text(0);

Extract text content from this element only (not including child elements), smart whitespace trimming is enabled by default.

# "foo baz"
$dom->parse("<div>foo\n<p>bar</p>baz\n</div>")->at('div')->text;

# "foo\nbaz\n"
$dom->parse("<div>foo\n<p>bar</p>baz\n</div>")->at('div')->text(0);

to_string

my $str = $dom->to_string;

Render this node and its content to HTML/XML.

# "<b>Test</b>"
$dom->parse('<div><b>Test</b></div>')->at('div b')->to_string;

tree

my $tree = $dom->tree;
$dom     = $dom->tree(['root']);

Document Object Model. Note that this structure should only be used very carefully since it is very dynamic.

type

my $type = $dom->type;

This node's type, usually cdata, comment, doctype, pi, raw, root, tag or text.

# "cdata"
$dom->parse('<![CDATA[Test]]>')->child_nodes->first->type;

# "comment"
$dom->parse('<!-- Test -->')->child_nodes->first->type;

# "doctype"
$dom->parse('<!DOCTYPE html>')->child_nodes->first->type;

# "pi"
$dom->parse('<?xml version="1.0"?>')->child_nodes->first->type;

# "raw"
$dom->parse('<title>Test</title>')->at('title')->child_nodes->first->type;

# "root"
$dom->parse('<p>Test</p>')->type;

# "tag"
$dom->parse('<p>Test</p>')->at('p')->type;

# "text"
$dom->parse('<p>Test</p>')->at('p')->child_nodes->first->type;

val

my $value = $dom->val;

Extract value from form element (such as button, input, option, select and textarea), or return undef if this element has no value. In the case of select with multiple attribute, find option elements with selected attribute and return an array reference with all values, or undef if none could be found.

# "a"
$dom->parse('<input name=test value=a>')->at('input')->val;

# "b"
$dom->parse('<textarea>b</textarea>')->at('textarea')->val;

# "c"
$dom->parse('<option value="c">Test</option>')->at('option')->val;

# "d"
$dom->parse('<select><option selected>d</option></select>')
  ->at('select')->val;

# "e"
$dom->parse('<select multiple><option selected>e</option></select>')
  ->at('select')->val->[0];

# "on"
$dom->parse('<input name=test type=checkbox>')->at('input')->val;

wrap

$dom = $dom->wrap('<div></div>');

Wrap HTML/XML fragment around this node (for all node types other than root), placing it as the last child of the first innermost element.

# "<p>123<b>Test</b></p>"
$dom->parse('<b>Test</b>')->at('b')->wrap('<p>123</p>')->root;

# "<div><p><b>Test</b></p>123</div>"
$dom->parse('<b>Test</b>')->at('b')->wrap('<div><p></p>123</div>')->root;

# "<p><b>Test</b></p><p>123</p>"
$dom->parse('<b>Test</b>')->at('b')->wrap('<p></p><p>123</p>')->root;

# "<p><b>Test</b></p>"
$dom->parse('<p>Test</p>')->at('p')->child_nodes->first->wrap('<b>')->root;

wrap_content

$dom = $dom->wrap_content('<div></div>');

Wrap HTML/XML fragment around this node's content (for root and tag nodes), placing it as the last children of the first innermost element.

# "<p><b>123Test</b></p>"
$dom->parse('<p>Test<p>')->at('p')->wrap_content('<b>123</b>')->root;

# "<p><b>Test</b></p><p>123</p>"
$dom->parse('<b>Test</b>')->wrap_content('<p></p><p>123</p>');

xml

my $bool = $dom->xml;
$dom     = $dom->xml($bool);

Disable HTML semantics in parser and activate case-sensitivity, defaults to auto-detection based on XML declarations.

OPERATORS

Mojo::DOM overloads the following operators.

array

my @nodes = @$dom;

Alias for "child_nodes".

# "<!-- Test -->"
$dom->parse('<!-- Test --><b>123</b>')->[0];

bool

my $bool = !!$dom;

Always true.

hash

my %attrs = %$dom;

Alias for "attr".

# "test"
$dom->parse('<div id="test">Test</div>')->at('div')->{id};

stringify

my $str = "$dom";

Alias for "to_string".

SEE ALSO

Mojolicious, Mojolicious::Guides, http://mojolicious.org.